Insight into Kedah State’s Coastal Perils: Tsunamis, Floods, and Sea Level Increase


  • Ebrahim Al-Qadami Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Mohd Adib Mohammad Razi
  • Syed Muzzamil Hussain Shah
  • Mohamad Fahmi Mohamad Ideris
  • Mahran Mahamud



coastal hazards, tsunami, coastal flooding, sea level rise, Malaysia


Coastal hazards refer to various natural processes and events occurring at coastlines and are driven by a combination of geological, meteorological, and oceanographic factors, posing risks to human activities, infrastructure, and the environment. Efforts to mitigate the consequences of these hazards are essential to minimize the potential risks and ensure the sustainability of the nearshore communities. Such efforts are developing early warning systems, constructing protective structures, proper land-use planning, and sustainable coastal management practices. In the last decade, coastal hazards become more severe due to the climate change consequences which directly contribute to sea level rise, storm intensification, and flooding. Therefore, investigating the coastal hazards in a specific region is of utmost importance to understand the degree of hazard and prepare effective mitigation strategies. This study specifically delves into the examination of coastal hazards along the mainland of Kedah and the coastal areas of Langkawi Island. It involves a comprehensive analysis of historical incidents and the prognosis of future scenarios. The study focuses on three primary natural hazards: tsunamis, floods, and the rising sea levels. Particularly, it scrutinizes significant past occurrences, notably the devastating tsunami of 2004. Additionally, projections regarding sea level increments for 2030, 2050, and 2100 are presented and deliberated upon. The paper concludes by suggesting recommendations for appropriate coastal management practices and effective mitigation strategies.




How to Cite

Al-Qadami, E., Razi, M. A. M., Shah, S. M. H., Ideris, M. F. M., & Mahamud, M. (2024). Insight into Kedah State’s Coastal Perils: Tsunamis, Floods, and Sea Level Increase. The Journal of The Institution of Engineers Malaysia, 84(2).

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